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Examination, diagnosis and classification for Japanese allergic rhinitis: Japanese guideline

      Abstract

      Many countries throughout the world have experienced an increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR), which has come to be a major cause of morbidity in developed countries. The pathology underlying AR is regarded as IgE-mediated type I allergy characterized by mucosal inflammation that occurs in response to allergen exposure. In Japan, AR caused by Japanese cedar pollen, the most common allergic disease, has become a salient public health challenge. Almost all primary care physicians and otorhinolaryngologists have been consulted by AR patients between February and April. Although most such patients have received treatment, numerous patients with AR have not received proper examinations for AR.
      Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements that are designed to help practitioners make decisions about appropriate and effective health care. Guidelines in many countries including Japan have been published for AR. Unfortunately, those guidelines have remained untested. Moreover, they might be difficult for non-specialists to use. In this review, we specifically examine the present standard examination for diagnosis of AR and optimal classification for AR in Japan. We hope that this review would be used not only for the support of daily practice but also for selection of AR patients for clinical trials.

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