Advertisement

The application of direct current electrical stimulation of the ear and cervical spine kinesitherapy in tinnitus treatment

      Abstract

      Objective

      The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical stimulations of the hearing organ in tinnitus treatment adapting the frequency of stimulation according to tinnitus frequency, to assess the influence of cervical spine kinesitherapy on tinnitus, as well as to evaluate hearing after electrical stimulations alone and together with cervical spine kinesitherapy.

      Methods

      The study comprised 80 tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss patients (119 tinnitus ears) divided into two groups. In group I (n – 58 tinnitus ears) electrical stimulation of the hearing organ was performed, in group II (n – 61 tinnitus ears) electrical stimulation together with cervical spine kinesitherapy. Hydrotransmissive, selective electrical stimulations were conducted using direct, rectangular current. The passive electrode was placed on the forehead, the active – a silver probe – was immersed in the external ear canal in 0.9% saline solution. The treatment involved fifteen applications of electrical stimulations (each lasted for 4 min) administered three or four times a week (whole treatment lasted approximately 30 days). The evaluation of the results considered a case history (change from permanent to temporary tinnitus), questionnaires (the increase/decrease of the total points) and the audiometric evaluation of hearing level.

      Results

      Before the treatment, group I comprised 51 ears (87.93%) with permanent, and 7 ears (12.07%) with temporary tinnitus; group II – 55 ears (90.17%) with permanent and 6 ears (9.83%) with temporary tinnitus. After the treatment, in both groups the number of ears with permanent tinnitus decreased considerably obtaining the pauses or disappearing of tinnitus. Directly after the treatment, group I comprised 25 ears (43.11%) with permanent, and 10 ears (17.24%) with temporary tinnitus, in 23 ears (39.65%) tinnitus disappeared; group II – 33 ears (54.1%) with permanent and 11 ears (18.03%) with temporary tinnitus, in 17 ears (27.87%) tinnitus disappeared.
      Regarding questionnaires, improvement was observed in group I – in 43.11% of ears, in group II – 32.8%. In both groups audiometric improvement of hearing was recognized.

      Conclusions

      (1) Electrical stimulation of the hearing organ, with the application of current frequencies according to tinnitus frequencies (selective electrical stimulation), was an efficient method in severe tinnitus treatment. (2) Cervical spine kinesitherapy in the treatment of tinnitus, using electrical stimulation, did not have any supporting influence.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Auris Nasus Larynx
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Jastreboff J.P.
        • Gray W.C.
        • Gold S.L.
        Neurophysiological approach to tinnitus patients.
        Am J Otol. 1996; 17: 236-240
        • McFerran D.J.
        • Phillips J.S.
        Tinnitus.
        J Laryngol Otol. 2007; 121: 201-208
        • Latkowski B.
        Original improvement of the technique of implantation of microelectrodes in cochlear deafness.
        Minerva Otolaringol. 1981; 1: 69
        • Watanabe K.
        • Okawara D.
        • Baba S.
        • Yagi T.
        Electrocochleographic analysis of the suppression of tinnitus by electrical promontory stimulation.
        Audiology. 1997; 36: 147-154
        • Portmann M.
        • Cazals Y.
        • Negrevergne M.
        • Aran J.M.
        Temporary tinnitus suppression in man through electrical stimulation of the cochlea.
        Acta Otolaryngol. 1979; 87: 294-299
        • Fodstad H.
        • Hariz M.
        Electricity in the treatment of nervous system disease.
        Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2007; 97: 11-19
        • Konopka W.
        • Zalewski P.
        • Olszewski J.
        • Olszewska-Ziaber A.
        • Pietkiewicz P.
        Tinnitus suppression by electrical promontory stimulation (EPS) with sensorineural hearing loss.
        Auris Nasus Larynx. 2001; 28: 35-40
        • Konopka W.
        • Mielczarek M.
        • Olszewski J.
        Electrical stimulation as an alternative method of tinnitus treatment.
        Otolaryngol Pol. 2008; 62: 601-605
        • Szymiec E.
        • Szyfter W.
        • Karlik M.
        The possibility of tinnitus suppression by electrical stimulation.
        Otolaryngol Pol. 1997; 51: 487-491
        • Morawiec-Bajda A.
        • Sulkowska J.
        • Gryczynski M.
        Efficancy of selective therapeutic electrostimulation (SET) in treatment of tinnitus patients estimated with objective measurements (BERA, AEMP, TOAE and DPOAE).
        in: International Proceedings 5th European Congress of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Rodos Greece September 11–162004
        • Kuk F.K.
        • Tyler R.S.
        • Rustad N.
        • Harker L.A.
        • Tye-Murray N.
        Alternating current at the eardrum for tinnitus reduction.
        J Speech Hear Res. 1989; 32: 393-400
        • Kozlowski Z.
        • Jankowski A.
        • Durko M.
        • Modzelewska-Radwan B.
        Selective therapeutic electrostimulation in tinnitus treatment.
        Otolaryngol Pol. 1999; 53: 520-523
        • Jackson R.
        The cervical syndrome.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1955; 5: 138-148
        • Biesinger E.
        • Reisshauer A.
        • Mazurek B.
        The role of the cervical spine and the craniomandibular system in the pathogenesis of tinnitus. Somatosensory tinnitus.
        HNO. 2008; 56: 673-677
        • Strek P.
        • Reron E.
        • Olszewski E.
        • Maga P.
        • Modrzejewski M.
        • Szybist N.
        The correlation of Doppler's blood flow distempers in vertebral arteries with degenerative cervical spine changes of patients undergoing treatment for tinnitus.
        Otolaryngol Pol. 1998; 52: 425-429
        • Olszewski J.
        • Zalewski P.
        Evaluation of the ear and vestibular apparatus depending on the anatomy of the cervical spine.
        Otolaryngol Pol. 1992; 46: 279-884
        • Quaranta N.
        • Wagstaff S.
        • Baguley D.M.
        Tinnitus and cochlear implantation.
        Int J Audiol. 2004; 43: 245-251
        • Bochenek Z.
        • Bochenek W.
        • Bieniek J.
        Electrical stimulation of the human hearing organ with transtympanal electrode.
        Otolaryngol Pol. 1977; 31: 225-228
        • Bochenek W.
        • Chorzempa A.
        • Hazell J.W.
        • Kiciak J.
        • Kukwa A.
        Non-invasive electrical stimulation of the ear canal as a communication aid in acquired total deafness.
        Br J Audiol. 1989; 23: 285-291
        • Skarzynski H.
        • Czyzewski A.
        • Kostek B.
        Prediction of post-operative profits in cochlear implanted patients using the electrostimulation procedure.
        in: Proc. 1999 workshop on applications of signal to audio and acoustics, New Palts, New York, October 17–201999
        • Hazell J.W.
        Management of tinnitus: discussion paper.
        J R Soc Med. 1985; 78: 56-60
        • Jastreboff J.P.
        • Hazell J.
        A neurophysiological approach to tinnitus: clinical implications.
        Br J Audiol. 1993; 27: 7-17
        • Hazell J.W.
        Tinnitus.
        Churchil Livingstone, Edinburdh1987 (Assessment of the tinnitus patient 71–87)
        • Tyler R.S.
        • Rubinstein J.
        • Pan T.
        • Chang S.A.
        • Gogel S.A.
        • Gehringer A.
        • et al.
        Electrical stimulation of the cochlea to reduce tinnitus.
        Semin Hear. 2008; 29: 326-332
      1. Offut G. Tinnitus, a new concept and treatment. Workshop on Inner Ear Biology. Liege, Belgium.7.11.2002.

        • Dauman R.
        • Tyler R.S.
        • Aran J.M.
        Intracochlear electrical tinnitus reduction.
        Acta Otolgol. 1993; 113: 291-295
        • Aran J.M.
        • Cazals Y.
        Electrical suppression of tinnitus.
        Ciba Found Symp. 1981; 85: 217-231
        • Ito J.
        • Sakakihara J.
        Tinnitus suppression by electrical stimulation of the cochlear wall and by cochlear implantation.
        Laryngoscope. 1994; 104: 752-754
        • Portmann M.
        • Nègrevergne M.
        • Aran J.M.
        • Cazals Y.
        Electrical stimulation of the ear: clinical applications.
        Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1983; 92: 621-622
      2. Konopka W. The use of electrical stimulation in tinnitus treatment in sensorineural hearing loss. Doctoral thesis. Lodz. Military Medical Academy 1986.

        • Montazem A.
        Secondary tinnitus as a symptom of instability of the upper cervical spine: operative management.
        Int Tinnitus J. 2000; 6: 130-133
        • Olszewski J.
        • Majak J.
        • Pietkiewicz P.
        • Luszcz C.
        • Repetowski M.
        The association between positional vertebral and basilar artery flow lesion and prevalence of vertigo in patients with cervical spondylosis.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006; 134: 680-684