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Suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in adult: An analysis of predictors for surgical drainage

      Abstract

      Objective

      Lymphadenitis can be treated successfully by empirical antibiotic therapy. However, inflamed lymph nodes can progress into an abscess with local and/or systemic reaction, which requires more complex treatment strategies. The study aim to analyze possible predictors for abscess formation within inflamed nodes that require surgical drainage.

      Materials and Methods

      We retrospectively enrolled 241 patients with acute or sub-acute cervical lymphadenitis. Demographic including, lymph node characteristics, management, and final diagnosis were recorded. Predictors for abscess formation within the lymph node that required surgical drainage were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Patient and lymph node characteristics that differentiated suppurative cervical lymphadenitis (SCL) from other lymphadenitis were also analyzed.

      Results

      There were 41 cases of SCL, 173 cases of uncomplicated cervical lymphadenitis, and 27 cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis (TBLN). Abscess was surgically drained in 39 patients, while 2 patients received a needle aspiration. In 9 patients, SCL complications included cellulitis of the neck soft tissue, supraglottic swelling, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and sepsis. Two patients were diagnosed with melioidosis and actinomycosis after drainage. Multivariate analysis showed that an immunocompromised host, male sex, and receiving prior inadequate treatment were predictors for surgical drainage. TBLN patients had similar manifestations as SCL patients. However, affected nodes in SCL patients were singular, painful, and showed fluctuation.

      Conclusions

      Following SCL diagnosis, abscess drainage and appropriate antibiotic treatment should be considered. Aspiration or surgical drainage can be effective in certain patients. Pathogen isolation and tissue biopsy should be performed to ensure accurate diagnosis and antibiotic selection. In addition, TBLN and melioidosis should be considered, especially in endemic areas.

      Keywords

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