Level of evidence
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- New chemosensory component in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): first year results for measured olfactory dysfunction.Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2016; 17: 221-240
- Olfactory dysfunction predicts 5-year mortality in older adults.PLoS One. 2014; 9e107541
- Relationship between poor olfaction and mortality among community-dwelling older adults: a cohort study.Ann Intern Med. 2019; 170: 673-681
- Smell and taste dysfunction in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Mayo Clin Proc. 2020; 95: 1621-1631
- Anosmia in COVID-19: underlying mechanisms and assessment of an olfactory route to brain infection.Neuroscientist. 2021; 27: 582-603
- Objective sensory testing methods reveal a higher prevalence of olfactory loss in COVID-19-positive patients compared to subjective methods: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Chem Senses. 2020; 45: 865-874
- Growing public health concern of COVID-19 chronic olfactory dysfunction.JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2022; 148: 81-82
- Position paper on olfactory dysfunction.Rhinology. 2016; 56 (PMID: 28623665): 1-30
- Biopsies of human olfactory epithelium.Chem Senses. 2002; 27: 623-628
Najafloo R., Majidi J., Asghari A., Aleemardani M., Kamrava S.K., Simorgh S., Seifalian A., Bagher Z., Seifalian A.M. Mechanism of anosmia caused by symptoms of COVID-19 and emerging treatments. ACS Chem Neurosci. 202;12(20):3795-3805. PMID: 34609841.
- Fluctuating olfactory sensitivity and distorted odor perception in allergic rhinitis.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999; 125: 1005-1010
- Smell and taste disorders, a study of 750 patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991; 117: 519-528
- Prevalence and causes of severe taste loss in a chemosensory clinic population.Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003; 112: 971-978
- Influence of medications on taste and smell.World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018; 4: 84-91
- Drug-induced taste and smell disorders. Incidence, mechanisms and management related primarily to treatment of sensory receptor dysfunction.Drug Saf. 1994; 11: 318-377
- Polypharmacy and medication management in older adults.Nurs Clin N Am. 2017; 52: 457-468
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Warnings on three zicam intranasal zinc products. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm166931.htm. Accessed March 17, 2022.
FDA Potential Risk Medications. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/questions-and-answers-fdas-adverse-event-reporting-system-faers/july-september-2021-potential-signals-serious-risksnew-safety-information-identified-fda-adverse. Accessed March 17, 2022.
FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) Public dashboard. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/questions-and-answers-fdas-adverse-event-reporting-system-faers/fda-adverse-event-reporting-system-faers-public-dashboard. Accessed February 1, 2022.
- Retrospective analysis of adverse events with dupilumab reported to the United States food and drug administration.J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021; 84: 1010-1014
- Evaluation of antibiotic-induced taste and smell disorders using the FDA adverse event reporting system database.Sci Rep. 2021; 11: 9625
- Real-world risk of anosmia with cancer directed systemic therapy: a pharmacovigilance assessment using FDA adverse events reporting system (FAERS) database.J Clin Oncol. 2021; 39 (e18790-e18790)
Post T.W.. UpToDate. https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/uptodate. Accessed December 1st, 2021.
- Taste and smell perception in the elderly: effect of medications and disease.Adv Food Nutr Res. 2002; 44: 247-346
- Drug-induced taste disorders.Drug-Saf. 2008; 31: 199-215
- Physicians’ Desk Reference.Medical Economics Company, Inc., Montvale (NJ)2005
Kane S.P. The top 300 of 2019, ClinCalc DrugStats Database, Version 2021.10. ClinCalc: https://clincalc.com/DrugStats/Top300Drugs.aspx. Updated September 15, 2021. Accessed February 9, 2022
- Drug-related dysgeusia: a systematic review.Oral Health Prev Dent. 2018; 16: 499-507
- Taste and smell alterations in cancer patients—real problems with few solutions.J Support Oncol. 2009; 7: 68-69
- Taste and odor abnormalities in cancer patients.J Support Oncol. 2009; 7: 58-65
- Lenalidomide and dexamethasone in transplant-ineligible patients with myeloma.N Engl J Med. 2014; 371: 906-917
- Rituximab plus lenalidomide in advanced untreated follicular lymphoma.N Engl J Med. 2018; 379: 934-947
- AUGMENT: a phase III study of lenalidomide plus rituximab versus placebo plus rituximab in relapsed or refractory indolent lymphoma.J Clin Oncol. 2019; 37: 1188-1199
- The efficacy and safety of sunitinib given on an individualised schedule as first-line therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a phase 2 clinical trial.Eur J Cancer. 2019; 108: 69-77
- Nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus sunitinib for first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma: extended 4-year follow-up of the phase III CheckMate 214 trial.ESMO Open. 2020; 5e001079
Celgene Corporation. Revlimid (lenalidomide) [package insert]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration website. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2021/021880Orig1s064lblrpl.pdf. Revised August 2021. Accessed March 18, 2022.
Pfizer Incorporated. Sutent (sunitinib) [package insert]. U.S. Food and Drug Adminstration website. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2020/021938s037lbl.pdf. Revised August 2020. Accessed March 18, 2022.
Timeline of progress of immunotherapy drugs. https://www.cancerresearch.org/en-us/immunotherapy/timeline-of-progress. Accessed March 17, 2022.
- Drug-induced taste and smell alterations: a case/non-case evaluation of an italian database of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting.Drug Saf. 2011; 34 (PMID: 21879779): 849-859
- A PK/PD approach on the effects of clarithromycin against oral and nasal microbiota of healthy volunteers.Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009; 47: 96-103
- Intranasal zinc and anosmia: the zinc-induced anosmia syndrome.Laryngoscope. 2006; 116: 217-220
- The Bradford Hill criteria and zinc-induced anosmia: a causality analysis.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010; 136: 673-676
Sales of the leading nasal spray/drops/inhaler brands in the United States in 2019 (in million U.S. dollars). https://www.statista.com/statistics/433651/leading-nasal-spray-brands-in-the-us. Accessed November 18, 2022.
- Coming to your senses: detecting taste and smell alterations in chemotherapy patients. A systematic review.J Pain Symptom Manag. 2012; 44: 880-895
- A randomized, placebo controlled trial of oral zinc for chemotherapy-related taste and smell disorders.J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2012; 26: 111-114
- Zinc deficiency and taste dysfunction; contribution of carbonic anhydrase, a zinc-metalloenzyme, to normal taste sensation.Biofactors. 2000; 12: 65-70
- Proposed mechanism for anosmia during COVID-19: the role of local zinc distribution.J Trans Sci. 2020; 7: 1-2
- Intra-nasal zinc level relationship to COVID-19 anosmia and type 1 interferon response: a proposal.Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 2020; 6: 21-24
- Zinc deficiency and taste perception in the elderly.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013; 53: 245-250
- Smoking and olfactory dysfunction: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.Laryngoscope. 2017; 127: 1753-1761
- Effects of aging on the human taste system.Ann NY Acad Sci. 2009; 1170: 725-729
- An increasing trend in the prevalence of polypharmacy in Sweden: a nationwide register-based study.Front Pharmacol. 2020; 11: 326
- An update on the clinical consequences of polypharmacy in older adults: a narrative review.Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2018; 17: 1185-1196
- Anosmia and Ageusia: common findings in COVID-19 patients.Laryngoscope. 2020; 130: 1787
John T.J., Wear W.E.S., Seshadri M.S. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/ Accessed March 17 2022.
- The prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020; 163: 3-11
- COVID-19 anosmia reporting tool: initial findings.Otolaryngol.–Head Neck Surg. 2020; 163: 132-134
- Emerging causes of drug-induced anaphylaxis: a review of anaphylaxis-associated reports in the FDA adverse event reporting system (FAERS).J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021; 9 (e2): 819-829
- Drug-induced liver injury associated with antiseizure medications from the FDA adverse event reporting system (FAERS).Epilepsy Behav. 2021; 117107832
- Cardiovascular toxicity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia: an analysis of the FDA adverse event reporting system database (FAERS).Cancers. 2020; 12 (Basel): 826
- The effect of gefapixant, a P2 × 3 antagonist, on cough reflex sensitivity: a randomised placebo-controlled study.Eur Respir J. 2019; 54 (PMID: 31023843)1900439
- Localization of ATP-gated P2 × 2 and P2 × 3 receptor immunoreactive nerves in rat taste buds.Neuroreport. 1999; 10: 1107-1111
Publication stageIn Press Corrected Proof
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. This manuscript was presented at ARS at COSM 2022 in Dallas, TX.
Funding Source: None.