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Correlation between serum vitamin D level and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo recurrence

  • Hyun-Il Shin
    Affiliations
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Yesai Park
    Affiliations
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Hyun Jin Lee
    Correspondence
    Corresponding authors at: Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, #56, Dongsu-ro, Bupyung-gu, Incheon 21431, Republic of Korea.
    Affiliations
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • Eun-Ju Jeon
    Correspondence
    Corresponding authors at: Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, #56, Dongsu-ro, Bupyung-gu, Incheon 21431, Republic of Korea.
    Affiliations
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
Published:January 24, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2022.12.017

      Abstract

      Objective

      Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of dizziness in the general population. BPPV is known to be closely related to the serum vitamin D level. This study aimed to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and BPPV recurrence.

      Methods

      A retrospective chart review was conducted on 50 patients diagnosed with posterior and lateral canal BPPV. The diagnosis of BPPV was based on the finding of vertigo and nystagmus induced by certain head positions (The Dix–Hallpike maneuver and head roll tests). The patients were classified into BPPV recurrence (Group A) and non-recurrence groups (Group B). Otolith function was assessed by cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and their association with vitamin D levels was evaluated.

      Results

      There were 19 subjects in Group A and 31 in Group B. There were no significant differences in age, sex, cVEMP, and oVEMP between the two groups. The average vitamin D level was 12.9 ± 8.0 ng/mL for Group A and 19.2 ± 8.2 ng/mL for Group B, and the difference between the groups was significant (p = 0.011). In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for BPPV recurrence with the best sensitivity and specificity, the optimal cut-off value of total serum vitamin D was determined as 12.74 ng/mL. Furthermore, reclassifying the patients based on the cut-off value showed a significantly higher recurrence rate in the group with a lower serum vitamin D level (70.5% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.007).

      Conclusion

      This complex finding highlights the importance of measuring serum vitamin D levels to monitor and evaluate patients at risk of BPPV recurrence.

      Keywords

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